Geld min vir skip se herwinning
FOTO: S/W HET VERSKYN Stadsverslaggewer AGTTIEN huidige Suid-Afrikaanse families stam af van die Hugenote wat aan boord van die Oosterland was, die skip waarvan die wrak in Tafelbaai naby die kus van Milnerton gevind is. Geld vir die herwinningsprojek het nou skraps geword, het dr. Bruno Werz, hoof van die Maritieme Argeologiese Navorsingsgroep van die Departement van Argeologie aan die Universiteit van Kaapstad, gesê. Minstens R200000 is nodig, anders kan die werk nie voort gaan nie. Voorsate van die families De Klerk, Naudé, De Villiers, Meyer, Van Leeuwen, Ehlers, Theron, Cronjé, Snyman, Oberholzer, Du Buis, Du Plessis, Biermann, Warnecke, Nortjé, Viljoen, Van Ellewee en Denys was op die skip. Die voorsate van hierdie families het almal op 25 April 1688 in die tweede groep van 29 Hugenote, met die Oosterland in die Kaap aangekom. Dit was op die Oosterland se tweede vaart. Die skip was in 1685 gebou. Op sy vierde vaart het hy met sy volle vrag op 24 Mei 1697 in ‘n noordwesterstorm vergaan. Waardevolle voorwerpe, waar onder twee kanonne van brons is reeds uitgehaal. Die kanonne is nou in die Maritieme Museum in die ou Tafelbaaise hawe. Mnr. Nick Malherbe, wat in 1988 ‘n leidende rol met die Hugenote 300-fees vervul het, het ‘n beroep gedoen om bydraes. Lede van bogenoemde families, afstammelinge van die Hugenote wat op die Oosterland was, kan R50 of meer per tjek bydra tot die “Projek Oosterland.” Hulle sal dan ‘n Hugenote-medalje ontvang, het hy gesê. Die adres waarheen die skenkings gestuur moet word, is Hugenote Erfenis, Posbus 167, Stellenbosch. Die Hugenote-vereniging van Suid-Afrika stel baie belang in die skip en sy skatte, het mnr. Malherbe gesê.
The OOSTERLAND was a vessel of 1123 tons, built in 1685 at the Zeeland Yard for Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch East India Company.
She set off for Asia for the first time in November 1685. Bad weather forced her return after only a fortnight, and it was to be February 1686 before she sailed again, eventually arriving in Batavia in five months later. She left for home at the end of that year, and stopped off at the Cape in March of 1687, loaded with cargo including spices as pepper, cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon and mace.
The OOSTERLAND’s second voyage from the Netherlands brought her back to the Cape in July 1688. This time she carried refugees from France among her 33 passengers, including some Huguenot families who were to become significant in South Africa’s later history. For six months the ship traded between the VOC’s stations in Asia, before returning home in August 1689. Her third trip, undertaken between February 1691 and October 1693, followed a similar pattern.
In July 1694, by now ten years old, the OOSTERLAND left Holland again, this time as one of a fleet of 21 ships. After over a year of trading around Asia, she left Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in February 1697 with a cargo which included diamonds, and again set sail for home, this time in company with four other ships. Eleven people died aboard the OOSTERLAND during her three month voyage to the Cape. It is possible that the quality of the drinking water caused not only these deaths, but also of the illness that struck 35 others of her complement. Having arrived once more at the Cape, in early May, the OOSTERLAND and her companions waited for another dozen ships from Batavia to join them for the voyage home.
On 23 May 1697, a strong north-westerly gale blew up in Table Bay. One ship broke her anchor cables, those of another had to be cut, and the OOSTERLAND was rammed and damaged by her drifting companions. On the next day, when the wind changed, the OOSTERLAND went adrift, and this time hit the sea-bed near the mouth of the Salt River. As soon as she touched bottom, her main mast broke, and the hull began to break up. Of the more than three hundred people on board, only two survived.
The wreck of the OOSTERLAND was discovered in 1988 by divers Graham Raynor, Michael Barchard and Christopher Byrnes. They immediately realised the significance of what they had found, and contacted Bruno Werz, the Maritime Archaeologist based at the University of Cape Town. When the divers showed him photographs of two bronze cannon, found lying on the seabed, he identified them as having once belonged to the Dutch East India Company, and the National Monuments Council were then also informed of the find.
The wreck lay in only 6m of water, a few hundred metres from the entrance of the Milnerton Lagoon, where a combination of strong winds and currents, cold water temperatures and bad visibility, made diving very difficult.
The OOSTERLAND excavation was notable because it was the first proper “maritime archaeology” project carried out in South African waters. The justification for “doing archaeology” lies in its ability to provide information that is not available in the documentary record. In the case of a shipwreck, such as the OOSTERLAND, information can be gathered about what goods were carried on the ships, both as cargo and as personal effects, and also can be seen how they were packed. The complement of crew and passengers had to be self sufficient in both skills and equipment, due to the long periods of time spent at sea. Archaeology can help to learn about the social and technological aspects of this self-sufficiency.
Bibliography and Sources:
Bruijn, J.R., Gaastra, F.S., Schöffer, I. Dutch-Asiatic Shipping In The 17th and 18th Centuries (3 Vols). The Hague, 1979, 1987
Turner, Malcom. Shipwrecks & Salvage in South Africa, 1505 to the present. Cape Town, 1988
|1||25/11/1685||Wielingen||Batavia||31/07/1686||Kaap de Goede Hoop|
|Zeeland||17/05/1686 tot 08/06/1686|
|2||29/01/1688||Wielingen||Batavia||19/07/1688||Kaap de Goede Hoop|
|Zeeland||25/04/1688 tot 15/05/1688|
|3||08/02/1691||Wielingen||Batavia||28/09/1691||Aamoud||Kaap de Goede Hoop|
|Zeeland||Scheiteruit||17/06/1691 tot 20/07/1691|
|3||28/02/1693||Ceylon||Rammekens||04/10/1693||Aarnoud||Kaap de Goede Hoop|
|Zeeland||Scheiteruit||20/05/1693 tot 12/06/1693|
|4||16/07/1694||Zeeland||Batavia||11/06/1695||Pieter||Kaap de Goede Hoop|
|van Ede||31/12/1694 tot 03/03/1695|
Dam, Pieter van, 1927. Beschrijvinge of the East India Company, First Book, Part I. – ‘s-Gravenhage:
Martinus Nijhoff, 1927. — The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1927. – 772 p., [nl]. — 772 p., [so].
- Oosterland (+1697)